Thursday, April 30, 2020

Uses of Mobile Application in Crime Scene Investigation

Generally, crime scene is a place where the crime occurred. Crime scene reporting is an integral part of investigation and reconstruction. An Investigating Officer normally documents the crime scene with the help of photography, recording, sketching, and notes taking. Measurements for the overall crime scene and the documentation for permanent records, trial review, and crime reconstruction will be taken during crime scene sketching. Usually, measurement taking is a tedious task and time consuming as well. It requires much effort and several personals involvement.

Below, I would like to mention that in one of the study, how successfully I have used mobile applications in IoS, and Android to measure the crime scene and the evidences. This was done in a more sophisticated way and was way easier than the traditional measuring tape method. 

The accuracy of smartphone applications for crime scene measurements has not been analyzed widely so far. Previously few works have been done on MobileCSITM by Siamese Systems. In some previous studies researchers have implemented a series of difficulty metrics for the visual appearance of a user interface. Consumer analysis with several mobile apps to assess the quality of the metrics has been performed.

This blog is all about, where we created a mock crime scene to simulate the actual crime scene (please see the figure below). The evidences were well marked for the purpose of identification, and several photographs using close up lenses, and aerial photography were also taken. After which, we have started the measurements. There were three series of measurements taken as:

1. Traditional Measurement Tape Method.
2. Measurements by Android Application ‘Tape MeasureTM’
3. Measurements by Apple application ‘Measure’ 

Simulated Crime Scene
Simulated Crime Scene

The statistical testing is used to check whether there is a significant difference between the means of samples of different measurements taken i.e., manual Tape Measure and mobile application methods that can be attributed to specific characteristics. Below are some of the images taken during the measurements:

crime scene measurement
Crime Scene measurement by manual tape method.

Below image shows one of the example of the measurement by Android application:

Crime Scene measurement by mobile application ‘Tape MeasureTM

Below image shows one of the example of the measurement by IoS application:

Crime Scene measurement by mobile application ‘MeasureTM


As detailed earlier, that statistical analysis (t-test) was performed to see the accuracy of the applications as shown in the table below:

This is just an example, full article link is given below

Conclusion: Accurate measurements of the evidence on the crime scene is a crucial activity to be done by the investigating officer or on the spot by the forensic experts themselves. This helps to better investigate the crime, create the modus operandi, the corpus delicti and helps to reconstitute the crime. The traditional method is quiet time consuming, required number of officials and have chances to misplace the evidences. After the thorough analysis of both the mobile applications considered i.e. Tape MeasureTM and MeasureTM it was found that both the applications are moreover better than the traditional measuring tape method, however, consideration should be given to select the accurate point of measurements in the application, correct position of the mobile camera, stableness of the mobile camera, and angle of photography selected. 






Friday, February 07, 2020

Blood Spatter Analysis

What is Blood Spatter Analysis?

Blood Spatter Analysis or Blood Pattern Analysis (BPA) is the examination of bloodstain shapes, locations, and distribution patterns, to provide an interpretation of the physical events that gave rise to their origin.

blood pattern analysis


In forensic investigations, it is ubiquitous to encounter blood on the crime scene. This blood can be in the form of a pool, dried stains, spatter, expirated blood, etc. Hence, the investigators are required to understand these bloodstains to interpret the events that have occurred on the crime scene, to create a possible hypothesis of the modus operandi, to identify the type of weapon, the direction of the blow, severity of the injury, applicable forces, etc. This whole interpretation is known as Blood Pattern Analysis or Blood Spatter Analysis.


What are the Types of Blood Patterns?

There are many classifications given by blood spatter analyst around the world. I will be using the most common here, to make it understand in a lucid form. 

Passive Blood Pattern: In the form of  flow, pool, saturation, drip/drop, volume.

Projected Blood Pattern: Instrumental, expirated, arterial spurt/gush.

Impact Blood Pattern: Blood splashes, object splashes, drops, drips, trails, object impacts.

Impression Blood Pattern: Transfer, contact, swipe, wipe, secondary



Artifactual Blood Pattern: Voids, fly spots, insect/bug trails, bubbles, blood (dried, skeletonized, separated).

Let me give you hint of some other way to classify and understand this:

Back spatter — blood directed back to the source of energy or force which caused the spatter; often associated with gunshot wounds at the entrance.

Castoff pattern — bloodstain pattern produced when blood is released or thrown in motion from an object carrying blood.

Drip pattern—bloodstain pattern resulting from blood dripping into blood.

Expirated blood—blood propelled from the nose, mouth, or a wound as a result of air pressure and/or air flow  

Impact spatter — bloodstain pattern created when blood receives a blow or force that results in smaller drops being dispersed at random.

Skeleton bloodstain — bloodstain consisting only of an outer periphery after cleaning off the central area when the liquid was partially dry.

Why Blood Pattern Analysis is Needed?

The determinations made from bloodstain patterns at the scene or from the clothing in a case can be used to:

  • Confirm or dismiss assumptions regarding events and their sequence.
  • Determine victim's position. 
  • The evidence of a struggle (standing, sitting, lying). (Blood smears, trails of blood)
  • Confirm or refute statements made in the case: Are there stain patterns consistent with his reported actions on a suspect clothing?
  • Were stain patterns on a victim or in a scene consistent with witness or suspect accounts?


What are Different Velocities Considered in Blood Spatter Analysis?


1. Low Velocity Patterns: These are the patterns where the gravitational pull is up to 5 feet/ second. Such patterns are relatively greater in size.

2. Medium Velocity Patterns: The velocity greater than 5 feet/second and up to 25 feet/second. Preponderant stain size 1 to 4mm.


3. High Velocity Patterns: A velocity of 100 feet/second or greater is considered as high velocity patterns. Preponderant stain size 1mm in size and smaller Mist like appearance.


Determination of Direction of Blood Spatter: 

If a droplet of blood reaches a perpendicular surface (90 degrees) then the resultant bloodstain is circular. That being the stain will be equal in length and width. Blood that hits a surface at an angle of less than 90 degrees will elongate or have the form of a tear drop. Directionality is usually evident as the pointing end of the bloodstain (tail) will always point in travel direction.

90 degree blood stain

direction of blood


Conceptually, the angle of impact is that between the surface and angle line. Blood that reaches a surface at an angle of 90 degrees will be almost round in shape. The pattern will become more elongated and elliptical as the blood impacts at angles decreasing from 90 degrees.


What are the various factors that affects the formation of particular blood spatter?


1. Type of the weapon
2. Force of Impact
3. Site of Injury
4. Position of the victim
5. Angle of Impact
6. Surface of spatter (porous/non porous/ smooth/ rough/ horizontal/ vertical)
7. Amount of blood
8. Climatic Conditions
9. Drying time
10. Clotting time, etc.

How to determine the point of origin of blood spatter ?

The specific element, on a two-dimensional surface, can be traced back to the directionality of several bloodstains. Upon deciding the directionality of a group of stains, it is possible to determine a two-dimensional point or region for the stain group.








Conclusion: The blood pattern analysis is a wide field in the science of investigation. It requires a great expertise in the court of law. As a career, it is one of the best option for the aspiring forensic experts. Often the blood pattern analyst are called in court to explain the cause of spatter, modus operandi, possible type of weapon, and to draw the chain of events.




Thursday, January 30, 2020

How Fingerprint Scanner Works?

Dear All,

You must be excited to know, how within fraction of seconds your biometric fingerprint is being recognized and verified. Let it be the attendance system, identity verification system, or for any other purpose. Fingerprint scanners are a real boon in proactive forensic industry. Though everything has its own limitations as well. let us understand how these fingerprint scanner works?

Fingerprint Scanner



Types of Fingerprint Scanners:


Fingerprint sensors are commonly used for entry recognition and data security in smartphones and other wearables, as well as in the automotive industry and in smart home applications. The two most common fingerprint sensors in use today are optical sensors and capacitive sensors.

Optical Fingerprint Scanner


The working of an optical scanner is by pounding a light over the fingerprint placed over the sensor and taking a digital photo. The light-sensitive microchip generates the digital image (in the binary digit form) by looking at fingerprint ridges and furrows, converting them into 1's and 0's, and creating the user's own personal code. As a matter of fact discussed in the previous post, no two individuals have the exactly similar fingerprint pattern even in two fingers. Thats make a unique digital code. 

How fingerprint scanner works


Capacitive Fingerprint Scanner 


Increasingly, capacitive fingerprint scanners are used on phones and other digital devices. They measures your finger, similar to the capacitive touchscreen, by using human conductivity, creating an electrostatic field and creating a digital image based on the electrostatic field. Wow, how cool is this?

The capacitive fingerprint scanner uses tiny capacitor array circuits that track fingerprint details. It uses the ridges of your fingerprint placed over the conductive plates which change the load stored in the condenser while the valleys (air gaps) leave the load unchanged on the condenser. Such adjustments are monitored by an active amplifier integrator circuit, which can then be captured by an analog-to-digital converter where digital data can be analyzed. You can see below the ridges and furrows (valleys) on the human fingers. 

fingerprint ridges and furrows



Ultrasonic Fingerprint Scanner


These are the new and advanced technology used in most of the new smartphones. Instead of light as in the case with optical sensor, UFS uses the ultrasonic (sound) waves from the skin. The sound waves from the skin are unique as per the ridges and furrows and creates a 3D digital image of the unique fingerprint. And believe me, this is the most secure method in comparison to the other two. 

ultrasonic fingerprint scanner



By,

Dr. Bhoopesh Kumar Sharma
Forensic Expert


Thursday, January 23, 2020

What is Forensic Nursing? A Career Guide

In past one decade this new domain of forensic science has emerged as a booming career option for the students interested in making their career in forensic science. Even in my 15 years career, I came across this just few years back. So, here we are going discuss about this fascinating domain of forensic science.

Forensic Nursing

Basically, it is the application of forensic science, combined with professional nursing experience as it is applied in law enforcement to public or legal proceedings. Moreover, when forensic health care aspects are combined with the registered nurse's bio-psycho-social education in the scientific investigation and treatment of trauma, death, violent or criminal activity and traumatic accidents within a clinical or community institution it is collectively called as 'Forensic Nursing'.

What Forensic Nurses do?


The forensic nurse acts as an impartial finder of fact; to use scientific principles and methods in identifying, recording, gathering and evaluating physical evidence related to diseases, accidents and crimes (mainly sexual assaults) that can be suffered by all kinds of victims. Both male and female forensic nurses are required for this purpose.

They medically examine the victim, gather the required evidences (photographs, body fluids, tissues, etc.), interrogate the victims, gather evidences from suspects as well, prepares a report for the court purposes. 


Categories of Forensic Nurses:


Correctional Nursing Specialists: Correctional nursing services offer secure, high-quality health care to persons held by the courts, including those in jail, prison, facilities for juvenile offenders and other institutions of correction. Correctional nursing professionals may tend to the ill within these facilities, conduct routine physical tests, and prescribe medicine to people with chronic needs.

Forensic Clinical Nurse Specialists: Forensic clinical nurse practitioners hold a master's or doctoral degree in forensic nursing and use their advanced training to work as professionals in various forensic settings as physicians, instructors, analysts, consultants and administrators. These may be working in emergency rooms, facilities for sexual assault tests, psychological medical care units or teams for death investigation.

Forensic Nurse Investigators: They discover the circumstances surrounding an accidental or violent death. Forensic nurse inspectors, usually working in a medical examiner's or coroner's office, inspect the body, study the scene, assist in autopsies and gather medical and social history details on the deceased to determine the exact cause of death.

Forensic Psychiatric Nurses (FPN): They are trained in dealing with mentally, emotionally, and behaviorally disordered victims. They evaluate and select patients to be treated, provide rehabilitative care and oversee the actions of a patient within the community. Furthermore, psychiatric forensic nurses can examine and treat criminal defendants as well as assist colleagues who have witnessed abuse.

Legal Nurse Consultants (LNC): Professional nurse practitioners help lawyers deal with civil cases where law and medicine overlap. Some of these conditions may include medical assault, personal injury, insurance for employees, and probation. Professional nurse consultants apply their forensic nursing education and clinical experience to identify, examine and evaluate the relevant medical knowledge for a case.

Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANE): Sexual assault nurse examiners provide compassionate, timely treatment to the sexual assault victims. Qualified through a professional forensic nursing education, they identify and analyze the injuries suffered by a patient; locate, gather and package forensic evidence related to the crime; and provide information or recommendations about the continued treatment of the victim.

How you can be a Forensic Nurse?


As it is clear from the profession, it is well suited for the graduates of nursing or medical. Additionally a degree in forensic science is also required. In case you have done degree or diploma in medical lab technology or pathology, then also you have a chance to enter into this field.


Research Paper Link: 



Monday, January 20, 2020

Top 10 use of Forensic Science in Corporate World

As the world is expanding enormously, so as the requirements of the population. With these increased requirements, few industries are growing at high demand in public and private sectors such as banks, insurance companies, accounting sectors, and other corporate offices.

In one sense, this is an excellent opportunity for forensic science graduates to shape their fantastic careers in these sectors. There are various opportunities available in the corporate world for forensic scientists, however, the requirement is to choose the correct specialization or opt for specific courses after their bachelors or masters in forensic science. As in many of the institutions, the current curriculum is insufficient to enter in the field of corporate, without a proper specialization.

Forensic in Corporate World

Following are some niche, where a forensic science graduate can make their career in the corporate sector.

1. Forensic Accountant/Forensic Auditor: I have already explained this field in detail in my previous blog post. This is highly emerging field and is very much in demand. Due to the increase in number of frauds in the companies, forensic accountants are needed to identify the elements of frauds, type of fraud, quantification of the fraudulent act, people involved, and to represent the evidences in the court room. There are several institutions offering the specialized programs in forensic accounting, however, one should be very clear that he or she must have the fundamental knowledge of the accounting.

On the other hand, for forensic auditing you can directly opt for the course from any desired and recognized institution or from affiliated online college. Definitely, as some point of time you need to prove your credentials in the court of law, while dealing with a legal case.

Find more on:




2. As a Freelance Questioned Document Examiner: I have been doing the same for the past 15 years. Solving the cases of forged signatures, handwritings, fraudulent documents, fake checks, cloned credit cards, disguised signatures and writings, anonymous letters, ransom letters, defame words, etc. This all you can do easily with your degree in forensic science and specialization is questioned document examination. It requires a minimum investment in terms of lab established. You will be appearing in the courts as freelancer, handwriting or fingerprint experts. You must check the licensing authority in your country. However, in India, UK, and some other countries your expertise is covered under Evidence Act.


Research writing


3. For Insurance Companies & Banks: You must have heard about the fake insurance claims. This may be through a fake death certificate, fake arson case, fake medical records, fake vehicle accident reports, etc. All of these requires the expertise of a forensic scientist to prove or disprove the fact in the legal matters.

4. Use of Proactive Forensics: You can be a guide to the companies who works in the manufacturing of the security and surveillance devices. This includes manufacturers of CCTV Cameras, Spy Cameras, Body Armors, Firearms, Body Scanners, Biometric instruments, License Plate Recognition systems, etc.

5. Crime Scene Investigator in Corporate: It is not only the fraud that affects the corporate world, but also the theft, bullying, cyber-bullying, etc. With a specialized degree in forensic science you can work as a freelancer for this purpose, as well as a permanent employee. I have been called by many MNC's to discover theft (cash and others) in their companies, so they can take appropriate action.

6. Work as Detectives: Get a certification done from several associations like Association of Private Detectives in India and start working as a detective. Though it is quite risky many times but a good team work can overcome these issues easily.

7. Cyber-Forensics Expert: It requires a specific qualification and certification to be a cyber forensic expert or an ethical hacker. There are number of courses available online and offline. Look for the good one and enter into this high demanding field. Almost all big or small companies faces various cyber frauds, hence they require a cyber forensic expert to gather he evidence, analyze it, and present it in the courtroom. The earning are really good if you have learnt the incident response etc. 

8. Forensic Expert for Media: In countries like India, and few others where the crime rate is high and the media is also very active. They requires TV talks by the forensic experts in various cases. This can be a booming career in media industry. You can also, work as a forensic journalist, reporting the crime, awareness about crime, general forensic awareness, etc.

9. Assistant to the Lawyers: As a forensic experts, lawyers are our best friends. Get yourself marketed to the lawyers to get the cases. They might also require your assistance in framing cross examination questions, where you can easily get paid for per question basis. However, to do this you must have a thorough knowledge of the subject. Things can't be compromised here.

10. Freelance/Trainer for the Corporates: I have been invited by number of colleges, corporates to give them an idea of forensic science, what to do at the first instance of any case, how to do graphological analysis, how to prevent frauds, how to detect frauds, and others. And believe me for each workshop you conduct, you will be paid a handsome amount.


Hope this post can help you further deciding your career in forensic science.

Thanks
Dr. Bhoopesh Kumar Sharma

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

A Career in Forensic Engineering


Forensic engineering is the use of engineering knowledge to determine why a machine or structure failed. As per the 'National Academy of Forensic Engineers' it is the application of engineering sciences in matters relating to, or possibly related to, the system of jurisprudence, including alternative dispute resolution. The forensic engineers are using reverse engineering to determine why a structure, material or part failed to perform as intended. Instead, if that failure caused injury, property damage or was connected to some other criminal case, those results can be used as evidence in court.

Let us take an example of building collapse, bridge collapse, or plane crash; the forensic engineers are involved in identifying the cause, so that any legal action (if required), can be taken up by the Honorable Court to provide the justice to the society, nation, and/or the injured or the relatives.

Forensic Engineering

Then, forensic experts can use their findings in court as evidence. Specifically, if the failure caused human injury or property damage they use their evidence in court.

Who Can be a Forensic Engineer?

To become a forensic engineer, you first need a full curriculum engineering degree and good experience in your area of expertise, because there are as many forensic engineering specialties as there are in general engineering practice disciplines. Forensic engineering may include but not limited to civil engineering, electrical engineering, aerospace engineering, computer science engineering, structural engineering, Audio-Video forensic engineering, etc.

Therefore, you must be a qualified and experienced engineer in any of the specialities, and in addition, you must have a thorough knowledge of the judiciary system (criminal justice system) of your country. It is always better to have a dual degree, means a combination of forensic science and engineering.

My advise is to go for your bachelors in engineering, get some industry experience, learn the process thoroughly, and then opt for masters or diploma in forensic science. In case you have already completed your bachelors in forensic science, then you can go for certain diploma or masters courses in engineering. But the later option is very limited, and do not offer courses in all engineering branches. 

In case you do not have any engineering degree, still you can be a secondary forensic expert who will work on the primary engineering analysis reports by qualified engineers. 

Skills Required:


1. Technical Skills
2. Investigative Skills
3. Communication Skills
4. Legal Skills (Knowledge of the Law and legal proceedings)
5. Court Presentation Skills
6. Basic Computer Skills

 What are the Challenges?


Becoming a forensic engineer is a challenge in itself. It's a long term process. If you do not have your fundamentals clear at undergraduate level, it is very difficult to succeed as a forensic engineer later on. Secondly, no two cases are same, one may require one set of skills and expertise, and other may be completely different. In addition to examining the site, evaluating debris and assessing the cause, forensic engineers must also interview people involved in planning and construction to see what protocols they may or may not have followed. There is evidence beyond that too. Forensic engineers should have litigious expertise. This means understanding how to handle potential evidence, how to present it in court and how to document in great detail the entire investigative process.

The other challenge is the presence of a dual degree course. There are very few institutions around the world offering such courses, and few online options are also available. Some are:

7. University of Amsterdams
10. TuDelft

However, if you have real passion, it is booming career with high demand and great pay. Also, you will be able to do lot of research in this area further. 

Disclaimer: This post is for an idea only for your career path, more details can be checked on the link provided. 




Saturday, January 11, 2020

A Career in Forensic Accounting


What is Forensic Accounting?

Forensic accounting uses accounting, auditing, and analytical skills to perform an investigation into an individual's or business ' finances. Forensic accountants are trained to look beyond the numbers to address a situation's business reality. For fraud and embezzlement cases forensic accounting is often used to explain the nature of a financial crime for court.In another scenario, one could ask the forensic accountant to investigate many different types of fraud. Investigation is the process of deciding if criminal matters have occurred, such as theft of employees, securities fraud (including falsification of financial statements), identity theft or insurance fraud.
Forensic Accounting

FORENSIC AUDIT's/ ACCOUNTING's goal is to find the audit evidence that is legally acceptable and, in doing so, the company's corporate veil can be disregarded.

Any fraud or neglect is considered following points?

Is that material for the effect?

Who are the people responsible?

How much can they recover?

Forensic Auditing

What are the Common Types of Crime to be Investigated by Forensic Accountant or Forensic Auditor?

To provide an overview of the wide range of investigations that could be conducted, it is useful to categorize these types into three groups. The three types of fraud are corruption, misappropriation of assets and fraud involving financial statements.

A. Corruption: There are three forms of fraud involving corruption: conflicts of interest, bribery and extortion. 

The fraudster exerts its power in a conflict of interest fraud to obtain a personal gain that detrimentally affects the business.

Bribery occurs when money (or something else of value) is being provided to manipulate a situation.

Extortion is the opposite of bribery, which happens when money is requested (rather than offered) to secure a specific outcome.

B. Asset Miss-appropriation: The most popular frauds are by far those involving misappropriation of properties, and there are many different types of fraud that fall within this category. The common feature is the theft of the company's cash or other items, like: cash theft, inventory frauds, fraudulent disbursements, misuse if assets, etc.

finding facts


C. Financial Statement Fraud: This is also referred to as fraudulent financial reporting, and is a type of fraud that causes a material error in the financial statements. It may include intentional falsification of accounting records; omission of financial statements transactions, balance sheets or disclosures; or misapplication of financial reporting requirements. This is often done with the intention of presenting the financial statements with a particular bias, for example disguising liabilities to improve any liquidity and gearing analysis.

How You Can be a Forensic Auditor or Forensic Accountant?

Following skills are required for an efficient and fruitful Forensic Audit

1. Deep Knowledge of Accounting (You must have degree in accounting or forensic accounting)

2. Proper Understanding of Auditing (You can go ahead with a certification in auditing)

3. Required traits of Investigating (A forensic science degree will be a plus point)

4. Obvious should be distrusted (Your keen observatory skills)

5. Think differently and Develop an open mind (Analytical Skills)

Follow the links:





How Forensic Auditors Conducts the Investigation?

1. Accepting the assignments
2. Planning the investigation
3. Gathering the evidences
4. Reporting of the evidences to the client and to the court
5. Participate in court proceedings

Initially, the forensic accountant needs to consider whether their firm has the skills and experience necessary to accept the work. Forensic investigations are of a specialist nature, and the work requires detailed knowledge of techniques for investigating fraud and the legal framework.

The investigating team must carefully consider what they have been asked to achieve and plan their work accordingly. The objectives of the investigation will include: Identifying the type of fraud that has been in place, how long it has been in operation and how the fraud has been hidden, identifying the fraudster involved quantifying the financial loss suffered by the victim, collecting evidence to be used in court proceedings to warn against the recurrence of the fraud.

Court Proceedings


To gather detailed evidence, the investigator must understand the specific type of fraud performed, and how the fraud was committed. The evidence should be sufficient to prove, in the end, the identity of the fraudster(s), the fraud mechanics and the amount of financial loss suffered. If any evidence is inconclusive or there are gaps in the custody chain, then proof can be challenged in court, or even become inadmissible.



Tuesday, January 07, 2020

Truth Serum (Narco-Analysis)

Most of us have heard about the term "Truth Serum," also called "Narco-Analysis," which has become one of the prime methods for crime detection or getting the truth from the suspect. Though there are always questions about the accuracy and admissibility of this test in the court of law, however, despite all controversies, it has become one of the widely used methods along with POLYGRAPGY (Lie Detection) and BRAIN MAPPING to get revealed the truth from the accused or the criminal. 

narco-analysis or truth serum


What is Narco-Analysis?

Generally speaking, it's a kind of psychotherapy performed on a person by administering certain drugs, placing the person in a semi-sleep state. A person can usually lie easily, but in this test the subject's self-consciousness is allowed to sink by intrusion into his nervous system. In such a situation there is an attempt to extract information in the form of hints about the crime as it becomes extremely difficult for the subject to lie under the influence of drugs. This test is therefore a scientific technique for obtaining information from an individual in a natural state of sleep, and a person can not lie using his imagination.

Two most common drugs are used to put narco-analysis into action, and these are sodium amytal, also known as amobarbital or amylobarbition, and sodium pentothal, commonly known as thiopental or thiopentone used by psychiatrist in the controlled conditions on the subject to put him/her in the state of semi-sleep, so he is neither fully conscious nor unconscious, thus loses the ability to manipulate the answers from his consciousness. These drugs work on the principle of inhibiting the brain's process of thinking filtration. The narco-analysis is considered as the combination of hypnosis and narcosis. In a short time, the psychiatrist could gather more details of menial contents. Without large doses of sedative drugs, narco-analysis produces sleep.

truth serum


Principle: 

The theory behind this is that when we lie, the brain processes our thoughts and chooses what to show and what to unreveal by the subconscious. A person can no longer sift his idea by applying this procedure and is supposed to speak the truth, or so. 

How the test is Conducted?

Narco-analysis test is conducted by 3 grams of Sodium Pentothal dissolved in 3000 ml of distilled water and the solution is intravenously administered along with 10 percent of dextrose over three hours with the aid of a trained anaesthetist. It is a barbiturate (thiopental sodium) that makes the neuronal membrane more permeable to chloride ions, leading to general inhibition, beginning with the cortex and progressing down to the lower brain regions with increasing biological effects to produce an alcohol-like disinhibition with only neural inhibitory effect. Hypnotist, who then has to frame certain leading question and evoke response in a way likely to produce accurate answer in the presence of the investigators, and forensic experts.

In short the person is quite close to unconsciousness, and is 

•Mentally incapable of resistance to questioning  

•Incapable of inventing lies to conceal guilt

•Looses inhibition & becomes talkative

•Depresses CNS,   BP decreased with slow heart rate

•Susceptible to suggestion & reveals repressed feelings/ memories

Requirements in the Narco-room:


Important things involved in the tests are: 

(i) Video recording set-up

(ii) Tape recorder set-up close to the subject

(iii) Narco-serum as mentioned-above

(v) A psychiatrist, hypnotist, anesthetist, a legal authority, and investigator.

(vi) The dose depends upon the suspect’s sex, age, health (physical and mental).

Every test is recorded in a video. How dosage was given to the subject, what questions were posed to him, what was his response, every minute detail is documented while the test is being performed. Entire process is recorded for the purpose to be presented in the court-room unbiasedly.


There are several legal consents to be obtained, guidelines to be followed, and precautions to be taken in the narco-room, which I will discuss in detail further in another post.

Limitations and Legal Implications:

1. The dosage itself is the biggest limitation in certain cases, that can raise a question in the court-room or to the human rights.
2. The subject's consent.
3. Any previous medical history, that may restrain this test.
4. If the person is already on medical treatment of similar drugs.
5. If the person is a drug abuser
6. Hypersensitivity to a particular drug
7. In many countries, it is still considered as a supportive tool in the criminal investigation, and many times is not admissible in the court (Human rights plays vital role here).
8. The success rate is not 100%, many subjects had been able to make false statements.
9. Right to self incrimination.
10. An analysis of a person without his or her consent will certainly undermine his or her individual rights

Conclusion:


As the world is changing rapidly, the pattern of crime is also changing rapidly. It seems to be very difficult in the present environment, where the eligible educated offenders begin to replace the suspect with obsolete investigative methods. In this case, the investigative authorities need to change the procedure according to the social environment and criminal behavior, and this can only be achieved by using analytical methodology in the investigation process. Hence, this can be well achieved by Narco-Analysis in this context. But keeping in mind the legal implications on the test, it is well suited as a collaborative and supportive evidence in the presence of other physical, circumstantial, and testimonial evidences.