Thursday, January 30, 2020

How Fingerprint Scanner Works?

Dear All,

You must be excited to know, how within fraction of seconds your biometric fingerprint is being recognized and verified. Let it be the attendance system, identity verification system, or for any other purpose. Fingerprint scanners are a real boon in proactive forensic industry. Though everything has its own limitations as well. let us understand how these fingerprint scanner works?

Fingerprint Scanner

Types of Fingerprint Scanners:

Fingerprint sensors are commonly used for entry recognition and data security in smartphones and other wearables, as well as in the automotive industry and in smart home applications. The two most common fingerprint sensors in use today are optical sensors and capacitive sensors.

Optical Fingerprint Scanner

The working of an optical scanner is by pounding a light over the fingerprint placed over the sensor and taking a digital photo. The light-sensitive microchip generates the digital image (in the binary digit form) by looking at fingerprint ridges and furrows, converting them into 1's and 0's, and creating the user's own personal code. As a matter of fact discussed in the previous post, no two individuals have the exactly similar fingerprint pattern even in two fingers. Thats make a unique digital code. 

How fingerprint scanner works

Capacitive Fingerprint Scanner 

Increasingly, capacitive fingerprint scanners are used on phones and other digital devices. They measures your finger, similar to the capacitive touchscreen, by using human conductivity, creating an electrostatic field and creating a digital image based on the electrostatic field. Wow, how cool is this?

The capacitive fingerprint scanner uses tiny capacitor array circuits that track fingerprint details. It uses the ridges of your fingerprint placed over the conductive plates which change the load stored in the condenser while the valleys (air gaps) leave the load unchanged on the condenser. Such adjustments are monitored by an active amplifier integrator circuit, which can then be captured by an analog-to-digital converter where digital data can be analyzed. You can see below the ridges and furrows (valleys) on the human fingers. 

fingerprint ridges and furrows

Ultrasonic Fingerprint Scanner

These are the new and advanced technology used in most of the new smartphones. Instead of light as in the case with optical sensor, UFS uses the ultrasonic (sound) waves from the skin. The sound waves from the skin are unique as per the ridges and furrows and creates a 3D digital image of the unique fingerprint. And believe me, this is the most secure method in comparison to the other two. 

ultrasonic fingerprint scanner

Thursday, January 23, 2020

What is Forensic Nursing? A Career Guide

In past one decade this new domain of forensic science has emerged as a booming career option for the students interested in making their career in forensic science. Even in my 15 years career, I came across this just few years back. So, here we are going discuss about this fascinating domain of forensic science.

Forensic Nursing

Basically, it is the application of forensic science, combined with professional nursing experience as it is applied in law enforcement to public or legal proceedings. Moreover, when forensic health care aspects are combined with the registered nurse's bio-psycho-social education in the scientific investigation and treatment of trauma, death, violent or criminal activity and traumatic accidents within a clinical or community institution it is collectively called as 'Forensic Nursing'.

What Forensic Nurses do?

The forensic nurse acts as an impartial finder of fact; to use scientific principles and methods in identifying, recording, gathering and evaluating physical evidence related to diseases, accidents and crimes (mainly sexual assaults) that can be suffered by all kinds of victims. Both male and female forensic nurses are required for this purpose.

They medically examine the victim, gather the required evidences (photographs, body fluids, tissues, etc.), interrogate the victims, gather evidences from suspects as well, prepares a report for the court purposes. 

Categories of Forensic Nurses:

Correctional Nursing Specialists: Correctional nursing services offer secure, high-quality health care to persons held by the courts, including those in jail, prison, facilities for juvenile offenders and other institutions of correction. Correctional nursing professionals may tend to the ill within these facilities, conduct routine physical tests, and prescribe medicine to people with chronic needs.

Forensic Clinical Nurse Specialists: Forensic clinical nurse practitioners hold a master's or doctoral degree in forensic nursing and use their advanced training to work as professionals in various forensic settings as physicians, instructors, analysts, consultants and administrators. These may be working in emergency rooms, facilities for sexual assault tests, psychological medical care units or teams for death investigation.

Forensic Nurse Investigators: They discover the circumstances surrounding an accidental or violent death. Forensic nurse inspectors, usually working in a medical examiner's or coroner's office, inspect the body, study the scene, assist in autopsies and gather medical and social history details on the deceased to determine the exact cause of death.

Forensic Psychiatric Nurses (FPN): They are trained in dealing with mentally, emotionally, and behaviorally disordered victims. They evaluate and select patients to be treated, provide rehabilitative care and oversee the actions of a patient within the community. Furthermore, psychiatric forensic nurses can examine and treat criminal defendants as well as assist colleagues who have witnessed abuse.

Legal Nurse Consultants (LNC): Professional nurse practitioners help lawyers deal with civil cases where law and medicine overlap. Some of these conditions may include medical assault, personal injury, insurance for employees, and probation. Professional nurse consultants apply their forensic nursing education and clinical experience to identify, examine and evaluate the relevant medical knowledge for a case.

Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANE): Sexual assault nurse examiners provide compassionate, timely treatment to the sexual assault victims. Qualified through a professional forensic nursing education, they identify and analyze the injuries suffered by a patient; locate, gather and package forensic evidence related to the crime; and provide information or recommendations about the continued treatment of the victim.

How you can be a Forensic Nurse?

As it is clear from the profession, it is well suited for the graduates of nursing or medical. Additionally a degree in forensic science is also required. In case you have done degree or diploma in medical lab technology or pathology, then also you have a chance to enter into this field.

There are number of universities offering this specialized programs. Please do check there as well for more information. Another program is being offered by American Institute of Health Care Professionals. 

Monday, January 20, 2020

Top 10 use of Forensic Science in Corporate World

As the world is expanding enormously, so as the requirements of the population. With these increased requirements, few industries are growing at high demand in public and private sectors such as banks, insurance companies, accounting sectors, and other corporate offices.

In one sense, this is an excellent opportunity for forensic science graduates to shape their fantastic careers in these sectors. There are various opportunities available in the corporate world for forensic scientists, however, the requirement is to choose the correct specialization or opt for specific courses after their bachelors or masters in forensic science. As in many of the institutions, the current curriculum is insufficient to enter in the field of corporate, without a proper specialization.

Forensic in Corporate World

Following are some niche, where a forensic science graduate can make their career in the corporate sector.

1. Forensic Accountant/Forensic Auditor: I have already explained this field in detail in my previous blog post. This is highly emerging field and is very much in demand. Due to the increase in number of frauds in the companies, forensic accountants are needed to identify the elements of frauds, type of fraud, quantification of the fraudulent act, people involved, and to represent the evidences in the court room. There are several institutions offering the specialized programs in forensic accounting, however, one should be very clear that he or she must have the fundamental knowledge of the accounting.

On the other hand, for forensic auditing you can directly opt for the course from any desired and recognized institution or from affiliated online college. Definitely, as some point of time you need to prove your credentials in the court of law, while dealing with a legal case.

Find more on:

Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, India & Abroad

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
West Virginia University
2. As a Freelance Questioned Document Examiner: I have been doing the same for the past 15 years. Solving the cases of forged signatures, handwritings, fraudulent documents, fake checks, cloned credit cards, disguised signatures and writings, anonymous letters, ransom letters, defame words, etc. This all you can do easily with your degree in forensic science and specialization is questioned document examination. It requires a minimum investment in terms of lab established. You will be appearing in the courts as freelancer, handwriting or fingerprint experts. You must check the licensing authority in your country. However, in India, UK, and some other countries your expertise is covered under Evidence Act.

Research writing

3. For Insurance Companies & Banks: You must have heard about the fake insurance claims. This may be through a fake death certificate, fake arson case, fake medical records, fake vehicle accident reports, etc. All of these requires the expertise of a forensic scientist to prove or disprove the fact in the legal matters.

4. Use of Proactive Forensics: You can be a guide to the companies who works in the manufacturing of the security and surveillance devices. This includes manufacturers of CCTV Cameras, Spy Cameras, Body Armors, Firearms, Body Scanners, Biometric instruments, License Plate Recognition systems, etc.

5. Crime Scene Investigator in Corporate: It is not only the fraud that affects the corporate world, but also the theft, bullying, cyber-bullying, etc. With a specialized degree in forensic science you can work as a freelancer for this purpose, as well as a permanent employee. I have been called by many MNC's to discover theft (cash and others) in their companies, so they can take appropriate action.

6. Work as Detectives: Get a certification done from several associations like Association of Private Detectives in India and start working as a detective. Though it is quite risky many times but a good team work can overcome these issues easily.

7. Cyber-Forensics Expert: It requires a specific qualification and certification to be a cyber forensic expert or an ethical hacker. There are number of courses available online and offline. Look for the good one and enter into this high demanding field. Almost all big or small companies faces various cyber frauds, hence they require a cyber forensic expert to gather he evidence, analyze it, and present it in the courtroom. The earning are really good if you have learnt the incident response etc. 

8. Forensic Expert for Media: In countries like India, and few others where the crime rate is high and the media is also very active. They requires TV talks by the forensic experts in various cases. This can be a booming career in media industry. You can also, work as a forensic journalist, reporting the crime, awareness about crime, general forensic awareness, etc.

9. Assistant to the Lawyers: As a forensic experts, lawyers are our best friends. Get yourself marketed to the lawyers to get the cases. They might also require your assistance in framing cross examination questions, where you can easily get paid for per question basis. However, to do this you must have a thorough knowledge of the subject. Things can't be compromised here.

10. Freelance/Trainer for the Corporates: I have been invited by number of colleges, corporates to give them an idea of forensic science, what to do at the first instance of any case, how to do graphological analysis, how to prevent frauds, how to detect frauds, and others. And believe me for each workshop you conduct, you will be paid a handsome amount.

Hope this post can help you further deciding your career in forensic science.

Dr. Bhoopesh Kumar Sharma

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

A Career in Forensic Engineering

Forensic engineering is the use of engineering knowledge to determine why a machine or structure failed. As per the 'National Academy of Forensic Engineers' it is the application of engineering sciences in matters relating to, or possibly related to, the system of jurisprudence, including alternative dispute resolution. The forensic engineers are using reverse engineering to determine why a structure, material or part failed to perform as intended. Instead, if that failure caused injury, property damage or was connected to some other criminal case, those results can be used as evidence in court.

Let us take an example of building collapse, bridge collapse, or plane crash; the forensic engineers are involved in identifying the cause, so that any legal action (if required), can be taken up by the Honorable Court to provide the justice to the society, nation, and/or the injured or the relatives.

Forensic Engineering

Then, forensic experts can use their findings in court as evidence. Specifically, if the failure caused human injury or property damage they use their evidence in court.

Who Can be a Forensic Engineer?

To become a forensic engineer, you first need a full curriculum engineering degree and good experience in your area of expertise, because there are as many forensic engineering specialties as there are in general engineering practice disciplines. Forensic engineering may include but not limited to civil engineering, electrical engineering, aerospace engineering, computer science engineering, structural engineering, Audio-Video forensic engineering, etc.

Therefore, you must be a qualified and experienced engineer in any of the specialities, and in addition, you must have a thorough knowledge of the judiciary system (criminal justice system) of your country. It is always better to have a dual degree, means a combination of forensic science and engineering.

My advise is to go for your bachelors in engineering, get some industry experience, learn the process thoroughly, and then opt for masters or diploma in forensic science. In case you have already completed your bachelors in forensic science, then you can go for certain diploma or masters courses in engineering. But the later option is very limited, and do not offer courses in all engineering branches. 

In case you do not have any engineering degree, still you can be a secondary forensic expert who will work on the primary engineering analysis reports by qualified engineers. 

Skills Required:

1. Technical Skills
2. Investigative Skills
3. Communication Skills
4. Legal Skills (Knowledge of the Law and legal proceedings)
5. Court Presentation Skills
6. Basic Computer Skills

 What are the Challenges?

Becoming a forensic engineer is a challenge in itself. It's a long term process. If you do not have your fundamentals clear at undergraduate level, it is very difficult to succeed as a forensic engineer later on. Secondly, no two cases are same, one may require one set of skills and expertise, and other may be completely different. In addition to examining the site, evaluating debris and assessing the cause, forensic engineers must also interview people involved in planning and construction to see what protocols they may or may not have followed. There is evidence beyond that too. Forensic engineers should have litigious expertise. This means understanding how to handle potential evidence, how to present it in court and how to document in great detail the entire investigative process.

The other challenge is the presence of a dual degree course. There are very few institutions around the world offering such courses, and few online options are also available. Some are:

1. National Academy of Forensic Engineers
2. Saddleback College
3.  University of California at San Diego 
4. Columbia University
5.  University of California at Berkeley 
6. Northwestern University 
7. University of Amsterdams
8. National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli
9. Edward E. Whitacre, Jr. College of Engineering
10. TuDelft

However, if you have real passion, it is booming career with high demand and great pay. Also, you will be able to do lot of research in this area further. 

Disclaimer: This post is for an idea only for your career path, more details can be checked on the link provided. 

Saturday, January 11, 2020

A Career in Forensic Accounting

What is Forensic Accounting?

Forensic accounting uses accounting, auditing, and analytical skills to perform an investigation into an individual's or business ' finances. Forensic accountants are trained to look beyond the numbers to address a situation's business reality. For fraud and embezzlement cases forensic accounting is often used to explain the nature of a financial crime for court.In another scenario, one could ask the forensic accountant to investigate many different types of fraud. Investigation is the process of deciding if criminal matters have occurred, such as theft of employees, securities fraud (including falsification of financial statements), identity theft or insurance fraud.
Forensic Accounting

FORENSIC AUDIT's/ ACCOUNTING's goal is to find the audit evidence that is legally acceptable and, in doing so, the company's corporate veil can be disregarded.

Any fraud or neglect is considered following points?

Is that material for the effect?

Who are the people responsible?

How much can they recover?

Forensic Auditing

What are the Common Types of Crime to be Investigated by Forensic Accountant or Forensic Auditor?

To provide an overview of the wide range of investigations that could be conducted, it is useful to categorize these types into three groups. The three types of fraud are corruption, misappropriation of assets and fraud involving financial statements.

A. Corruption: There are three forms of fraud involving corruption: conflicts of interest, bribery and extortion. 

The fraudster exerts its power in a conflict of interest fraud to obtain a personal gain that detrimentally affects the business.

Bribery occurs when money (or something else of value) is being provided to manipulate a situation.

Extortion is the opposite of bribery, which happens when money is requested (rather than offered) to secure a specific outcome.

B. Asset Miss-appropriation: The most popular frauds are by far those involving misappropriation of properties, and there are many different types of fraud that fall within this category. The common feature is the theft of the company's cash or other items, like: cash theft, inventory frauds, fraudulent disbursements, misuse if assets, etc.

finding facts

C. Financial Statement Fraud: This is also referred to as fraudulent financial reporting, and is a type of fraud that causes a material error in the financial statements. It may include intentional falsification of accounting records; omission of financial statements transactions, balance sheets or disclosures; or misapplication of financial reporting requirements. This is often done with the intention of presenting the financial statements with a particular bias, for example disguising liabilities to improve any liquidity and gearing analysis.

How You Can be a Forensic Auditor or Forensic Accountant?

Following skills are required for an efficient and fruitful Forensic Audit

1. Deep Knowledge of Accounting (You must have degree in accounting or forensic accounting)

2. Proper Understanding of Auditing (You can go ahead with a certification in auditing)

3. Required traits of Investigating (A forensic science degree will be a plus point)

4. Obvious should be distrusted (Your keen observatory skills)

5. Think differently and Develop an open mind (Analytical Skills)

Follow the links:

How Forensic Auditors Conducts the Investigation?

1. Accepting the assignments
2. Planning the investigation
3. Gathering the evidences
4. Reporting of the evidences to the client and to the court
5. Participate in court proceedings

Initially, the forensic accountant needs to consider whether their firm has the skills and experience necessary to accept the work. Forensic investigations are of a specialist nature, and the work requires detailed knowledge of techniques for investigating fraud and the legal framework.

The investigating team must carefully consider what they have been asked to achieve and plan their work accordingly. The objectives of the investigation will include: Identifying the type of fraud that has been in place, how long it has been in operation and how the fraud has been hidden, identifying the fraudster involved quantifying the financial loss suffered by the victim, collecting evidence to be used in court proceedings to warn against the recurrence of the fraud.

Court Proceedings

To gather detailed evidence, the investigator must understand the specific type of fraud performed, and how the fraud was committed. The evidence should be sufficient to prove, in the end, the identity of the fraudster(s), the fraud mechanics and the amount of financial loss suffered. If any evidence is inconclusive or there are gaps in the custody chain, then proof can be challenged in court, or even become inadmissible.

Tuesday, January 07, 2020

Truth Serum (Narco-Analysis)

Most of us have heard about the term "Truth Serum," also called "Narco-Analysis," which has become one of the prime methods for crime detection or getting the truth from the suspect. Though there are always questions about the accuracy and admissibility of this test in the court of law, however, despite all controversies, it has become one of the widely used methods along with POLYGRAPGY (Lie Detection) and BRAIN MAPPING to get revealed the truth from the accused or the criminal. 

narco-analysis or truth serum

What is Narco-Analysis?

Generally speaking, it's a kind of psychotherapy performed on a person by administering certain drugs, placing the person in a semi-sleep state. A person can usually lie easily, but in this test the subject's self-consciousness is allowed to sink by intrusion into his nervous system. In such a situation there is an attempt to extract information in the form of hints about the crime as it becomes extremely difficult for the subject to lie under the influence of drugs. This test is therefore a scientific technique for obtaining information from an individual in a natural state of sleep, and a person can not lie using his imagination.

Two most common drugs are used to put narco-analysis into action, and these are sodium amytal, also known as amobarbital or amylobarbition, and sodium pentothal, commonly known as thiopental or thiopentone used by psychiatrist in the controlled conditions on the subject to put him/her in the state of semi-sleep, so he is neither fully conscious nor unconscious, thus loses the ability to manipulate the answers from his consciousness. These drugs work on the principle of inhibiting the brain's process of thinking filtration. The narco-analysis is considered as the combination of hypnosis and narcosis. In a short time, the psychiatrist could gather more details of menial contents. Without large doses of sedative drugs, narco-analysis produces sleep.

truth serum


The theory behind this is that when we lie, the brain processes our thoughts and chooses what to show and what to unreveal by the subconscious. A person can no longer sift his idea by applying this procedure and is supposed to speak the truth, or so. 

How the test is Conducted?

Narco-analysis test is conducted by 3 grams of Sodium Pentothal dissolved in 3000 ml of distilled water and the solution is intravenously administered along with 10 percent of dextrose over three hours with the aid of a trained anaesthetist. It is a barbiturate (thiopental sodium) that makes the neuronal membrane more permeable to chloride ions, leading to general inhibition, beginning with the cortex and progressing down to the lower brain regions with increasing biological effects to produce an alcohol-like disinhibition with only neural inhibitory effect. Hypnotist, who then has to frame certain leading question and evoke response in a way likely to produce accurate answer in the presence of the investigators, and forensic experts.

In short the person is quite close to unconsciousness, and is 

•Mentally incapable of resistance to questioning  

•Incapable of inventing lies to conceal guilt

•Looses inhibition & becomes talkative

•Depresses CNS,   BP decreased with slow heart rate

•Susceptible to suggestion & reveals repressed feelings/ memories

Requirements in the Narco-room:

Important things involved in the tests are: 

(i) Video recording set-up

(ii) Tape recorder set-up close to the subject

(iii) Narco-serum as mentioned-above

(v) A psychiatrist, hypnotist, anesthetist, a legal authority, and investigator.

(vi) The dose depends upon the suspect’s sex, age, health (physical and mental).

Every test is recorded in a video. How dosage was given to the subject, what questions were posed to him, what was his response, every minute detail is documented while the test is being performed. Entire process is recorded for the purpose to be presented in the court-room unbiasedly.

There are several legal consents to be obtained, guidelines to be followed, and precautions to be taken in the narco-room, which I will discuss in detail further in another post.

Limitations and Legal Implications:

1. The dosage itself is the biggest limitation in certain cases, that can raise a question in the court-room or to the human rights.
2. The subject's consent.
3. Any previous medical history, that may restrain this test.
4. If the person is already on medical treatment of similar drugs.
5. If the person is a drug abuser
6. Hypersensitivity to a particular drug
7. In many countries, it is still considered as a supportive tool in the criminal investigation, and many times is not admissible in the court (Human rights plays vital role here).
8. The success rate is not 100%, many subjects had been able to make false statements.
9. Right to self incrimination.
10. An analysis of a person without his or her consent will certainly undermine his or her individual rights


As the world is changing rapidly, the pattern of crime is also changing rapidly. It seems to be very difficult in the present environment, where the eligible educated offenders begin to replace the suspect with obsolete investigative methods. In this case, the investigative authorities need to change the procedure according to the social environment and criminal behavior, and this can only be achieved by using analytical methodology in the investigation process. Hence, this can be well achieved by Narco-Analysis in this context. But keeping in mind the legal implications on the test, it is well suited as a collaborative and supportive evidence in the presence of other physical, circumstantial, and testimonial evidences.

Saturday, January 04, 2020

Crime Scene Search Methods

The Crime Scene is search for the physical evidences (visible or invisible). There are various types of search methods employed by the investigating officers and the forensic scientists at the scene of crime. The searching methods mainly depends on:

  • Type of Crime (Rape, murder, burglary, theft, etc.)
  • Nature of Crime (Homicide, suicide, or accident)
  • Size of the crime scene (macroscopic or microscopic)
  • Location of the crime scene (indoor, outdoor, combination of indoor or outdoor, or any remote area like underwater, desert, etc.)
  • Complexity of the crime scene 

Before deciding the search method, all the investigators and the forensic experts must follow the general guidelines (check list) to observe the crime scene after due recording:

1. Are the doors and windows locked or unlocked? Open or shut? 

2. Are there signs of forced entry, such as tool marks or broken locks?

3. Is the house or the crime scene is in good order? If not, does it look like there was a struggle or was the victim just messy?

4. Is there mail/post/suicidal note/threatening note/ etc. lying around? Has it been opened? Or where it is located?
5. Is the kitchen in good order? Is there any partially eaten food? Is the table set? If so, for how many people?

6. Are there signs of a party, such as empty glasses or bottles or full ashtrays?

7. If there are full ashtrays, what brands of cigarettes are present? 

8. Is there anything that seems out of place? Is there a couch blocking a doorway?

9. Is there trash in the trash cans? Is there anything out of the ordinary in the trash? Is the trash in the right chronological order? If not, someone might have been looking for something in the victim's trash.

10.  Are the bathroom towels wet? Are the bathroom towels missing? Are there any signs of a cleanup?

11. If the crime is a shooting, how many shots were fired? The CSI will try to locate the gun, each bullet, each shell casing and each bullet hole.

12. If the crime is a stabbing, is a knife obviously missing from victim's kitchen? If so, the crime may not have been premeditated.

13. Are there any shoe prints or any other footwear marks on the floor or in the area immediately outside the building?

14. Are there any tire marks in the driveway or in the area around the building?

15. Is there any blood splatter on floors, walls or ceilings?

Irrespective of the type of crime scene, the investigator has to decide the appropriate method immediately, without delay, so as to collect the evidences in the intact form as far as possible. Following are the basic search methods, usually commissioned on the crime scene:

1. Zonal Method
2. Strip Method
3. Line Search
4. Grid Method
5. Spiral Method (Outward Spiral & Inward Spiral)
6. Wheel Search Method
7. Random Search

   Zonal Method: In this method the crime scene is virtually divided into different zones. The number of zones depends upon the size and complexity of the crime scene. This method can be applicable to both indoor and outdoor crime scenes. Different people will be employed in individual zones, and will search their zones thoroughly for the evidences normally as well as using different techniques (UV/IR/Video). After searching in their own zones, the zones will be exchanged to check the accuracy and double check for any missing items. This method cannot be applicable on very squeezed and complex crime scenes like elevators, lift shafts, or stairs.

   Strip or Parallel Method: In this method the virtual strips or line are being imagined to walk through on the crime scene and look for the evidences. The method is well suited for the crime scene like class rooms, where rows are present already, each row can be considered as a strip. Also, minimum number of the personals are required for this method. One person will start the walk through from one corner of the strip and will move towards the other looking for the evidences. The walk through should be slow and thorough. If two personals are employed, then each of them can start from two different points and continuing to the different ends to double check the search.

Strip or Parallel Search Method

   Grid Method (two parallel strip): It is just like the strip method; the only difference is that two strips are considered to form a grid. Again, only two people can do the searching walking through on separate strips and then will switch their strips for the more accuracy. It is a good method for large indoors and outdoors crime scenes.

Grid Method

   Spiral Method: This is well suited for lager indoor and outdoor crime scene with less obstacles (like furniture etc.). The searcher will start either from the center of the room (outward) or from the periphery (inward) search as show in the images below. Also, two investigators can search together, one moving from the center towards the periphery and other one vice versa.

Spiral Method

   Wheel Search Method: This method is only applicable to the lager outdoor scenes like fields, desert, or other such open areas. It is like the zonal method; however, the wheel is divided into various zones depending upon the size of the crime scene. Different individuals will be employed in separate zones and then switching their zone for more accuracy. The investigators or the searchers can begin from the epicenter moving towards their zones to complete the search, and then returning back to the epicenter for the discussion or collection procedures.

  Random Search Method: This is the most common method employed by the investigators, because of the feasibility at any location. No above-mentioned ruled to be followed for this method. It is also advisable to consider this method on complex crime scenes.

Levels of Searches:

First Level: search at the scene of crime

Second Level: through photographs, sketches, witnesses, relatives, and other sources

Third Level: Revisit the crime scene if possible, Interrogation etc.

Evidence Removal:

The investigator or the forensic expert has to be sure to document each and every evidence encountered at the particular scene. The evidences should only be removed after proper documentation (photography/videography/sketching/notes), and then should be properly collected in appropriate containers.