Monday, March 11, 2024




Prof. (Dr.) Bhoopesh Kumar Sharma
Professor of Forensic Science (18 years experience in Forensic Teaching & Research)
SGT University, Gurugram, Haryana, India



Forensic Science is the application of scientific principles in terms of LAW for the purpose of Justice. Whenever we apply science to solve a legal problem, it becomes Forensic Science. For instance, you encountered a red stain on the carpet. The first question that comes to your mind "Oh is this blood"? Now, to answer this question, you require a number of scientific methods:

1. Whether it is Blood or Not?
2. If it is blood, then whether it is Animal blood or Human blood?
3. If animal, then which species or which animal?
4. If human, what is the blood group, male or female, DNA identification, etc.

In the above example, we need a bit of chemistry (to test whether it is blood or not), a bit of biology (species origin test, antigen-antibody reaction, DNA), and a bit of physics (to identify the source and force applied).

There are various branches of forensic science, including some very edge-cutting:

1. Forensic Toxicology: Deals with the Analysis of the toxins (poisons), etc.

2. Forensic Pathology: Forensic pathologists determine the cause of death, manner of death, and nature of injuries during medical examination (post-mortem).

3. Forensic Odontology: Application of dental science for legal investigations. A single tooth can be utilized to identify the individual.

4. Forensic Linguistics: Also known as language to the law. It is the application of linguistic knowledge and analytical methods to the forensic context of law.

5. Forensic Geology: Also called Geo-forensics, it is the study of evidence encountered beneath the earth, like minerals, oil, petroleum, objects, dead bodies, fossils, etc, and used to answer questions raised by the legal system.

6. Forensic Entomology: Study of the different species of insects (arthropods) and their life cycles on the dead bodies or decomposed bodies to determine the time since death.

7. Forensic Engineering: This is the study of engineering principles for the investigation of failures or other performance problems like plane crashes, building collapses, bridge collapses etc.

8. DNA Profiling: Also named as DNA Fingerprinting and is one of the major branches of Forensic Science, it deals with the extraction, isolation, identification, and comparison of DNA from body fluids and other biological matter.

9. Forensic Psychology: A broad area and applying psychological parameters in the legal system. Used for criminal profiling, court procedures, corrective measures, preventive forensics, etc.

10. Forensic Archaeology: It is the field of forensic science that involves the application of archaeological methods in the investigation of a crime to identify the related evidence and to reconstruct the crime scene. Forensic archaeologists are employed to excavate and recover human remains, personal items, weapons, etc.

11. Forensic Anthropology: It deals with the study of skeletal remains of humans and animals. It answers a number of questions related to a piece of bone or a complete skeleton. Basically, it deals with the procedure of identification and individualization on the basis of skeletal remains.

12. Digital Forensics: Digital Forensics is characterized as the method that can be used by the court of law to store, locate, extract, and record computer evidence.

13. Forensic Ballistics: Deals with the study of firearms and related evidences in a shooting incident. A forensic ballistic expert is required to identify the type of firearm used, range of firing, direction of firing, link the suspected firearm with the incident, etc.

14. Forensic Biology: Application of biology to equate a person(s), whether suspect or victim, with another person (victim or suspect, respectively) in a venue, object (or set of items).

15. Forensic Chemistry: In order to identify unidentified materials and match specimens to recognized substances, forensic chemists examine non-biological trace evidence (Chemical) collected at crime scenes. They also use various instrumental techniques like chromatography, mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, and others to identify and quantify these true materials. 

16. Forensic Physics: It deals with a combination of ballistics, explosives, blood splatters, the measurement of density, index of refraction, birefringence, the force of impact, voice analysis, audio-video analysis, etc.

17. Forensic Photography: Forensic photography, sometimes referred to as documentation of the crime scene, is an event that documents the initial appearance of the crime scene and physical evidence to provide the courts with a permanent record. A forensic photographer is always required to be on the scene and off the scene at various stages of investigation. 

18. Forensic Sculpting: Forensic sculptors combine artistic talent with anatomy knowledge to assist in law enforcement identification. Sculptors may perform facial reconstructions on unknown remains or use techniques of age progression to build missing people's busts.

19. Questioned Document Analysis: A questioned document examiner deals with the identification and examination of handwriting, signature frauds, fake currency, fake passports, and many other such matters in legal investigations. It is the most commonly used branch of forensic science in the current scenario due to the increased number of cheque frauds, will/property frauds, etc.

20. Dactyloscopy or Fingerprinting: Comparison of fingerprints, development, and lifting of latent (hidden) fingerprints on the crime scene and on other objects, collection of impression evidence is a very crucial task dealt by the investigators.

There are many more branches like nano-forensics, tele-forensics, wildlife forensics, proactive forensics, IoT forensics etc. 

Career Options in Forensic Science:

You can be a

  • Crime Scene Investigator
  • An Evidence Collector
  • A Forensic Photographer
  • Crime Lab Analyst
  • Forensic Pathologist
  • Forensic Toxicologist
  • DNA Forensic Expert
  • Fingerprint Expert
  • Questioned Document Examiner
  • Cyber Forensic Expert
  • Forensic Accountant
  • Ballistic Expert
  • Forensic Auditor
  • Forensic legal advisor for the court of law and lawyers
  • Forensic Biologists
  • Environmental Forensic Expert
  • Document Analyser
  • Fraud Investigator
  • Forensic Lecturer or Professor
  • Researcher
  • Forensic Instrumentation Technician, and so on.



  1. Forensic science is a captivating subject that has a lot of study and career paths. The fields of crime scene investigation and forensic psychology, to name just a few, are the examples of the diverse and exciting opportunities that are there. For students who are doing the field and are writing a dissertation, the digital marketing dissertation help can be of great use to them. Through the use of expert help, students will be able to improve their knowledge of digital marketing strategies and their application in the forensic science industry thus, they will be able to produce a well-rounded and impactful dissertation.

  2. This comment has been removed by the author.

  3. As a forensic science enthusiast, I understand the need of rigorous investigation and analysis in solving cases; if you're a new author looking for Affordable fiction ghost writing services, look no further! Crafting fascinating stories should not break the bank, and these businesses provide exceptional storytelling within your budget.