Dr. Bhoopesh Kumar Sharma
Fingerprint Pattern Types:
- The Type-lines: The type-lines are the innermost ridges that bound the pattern area. These ridges run parallel, then diverge or separate, and surround or tend to surround the pattern area.
|A & B are type-lines in the image above.|
2. The Delta: The delta according to the dictionary means – The fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. The Greeks called delta to the alluvial deposit at the mouth of the Nile shaped ∆. In terms of fingerprints is found in the patterns where type-lines are present. It is located in the midway of the type-lines at the place of their divergence or just in front of that point. It may be in the form of bifurcation, a ridge ending, a dot, a short ridge, a fork or a ridge fragment. The delta is also termed as the outer terminus of the pattern whereas the core is as the inner terminus. The core and the delta are the necessary elements for the ridge counting.
3. Bifurcations and Trifurcations: - It can be defined as the dividing or forking of a single ridge into two branches. It is considered as trifurcation when the number of branches is three.
4. Divergence: - It is quite different with the bifurcation as it is the separation or spreading apart of two ridges that were previously running parallel.
5. Bridge: - It can be defined as connecting friction ridge between two parallel running ridges.
The above all characteristics aid in the examination and comparison of the crime and the control fingerprints. The exact location and the position of these characteristics of the fingerprints are compared within the disputed and the controlled pattern for the purpose of identification.